Repair and update of self-propelled antiaircraft weapon system “Shilka”

Repair and update of self-propelled antiaircraft weapon system “Shilka”

Variant 1. General overhaul of ZSU “Shilka” with overhaul of V-6R1 engine and update 

Update of RPK-2 from the composition of ZSU-23-4 consists in replacing it with radar system RPK-RT in the composition of:
- radar 1RL33-RT;
- two range optic electronic system;
- enhanced concealment radar RL-RT-3, operating in 3 millimeter range, for tracking air objects from a distance up to 10 km;
- digital computing system instead of standard computing device and gun coordinates converter.
Update of workstations by replacing standard equipment with automated workstations.

On the screen of the commander’s AWS there can be displayed:
а) air situation data (logbooks of targets and air objects):
from ZSU radar;
from ZSU optic electronic system;
from control post;
from other ZSU.
b) combat data:
assigned fire area;
prohibited fire areas;
take-off angles;
c) tactical data:
ZSU self position, ZSU coordinates and orientation; 
digital (vector) topographical terrain map;
positions of covered troops, neighbor ZSU and interacting air defense systems.
d) data about condition and operation modes of the gun, hardware and equipment of ZSU:
operation modes of antiaircraft guided missile, quantity and condition of missile;
operations modes, type, quantity and condition of ammunition;
operation modes of radio electronic systems, propelling system, power supply system (from combat information and control system).

Hardware of gunner’s AWS is mounted instead of T-35M box. The hardware allows operating in radio and optic electronic channel for independent searching and tracking of target and firing.
Hardware of distance-operator’s AWS is mounted instead of standard hardware. 
Built-in simulator allows training of standard ZSU crews for firing exercises in maximum realistic conditions. 
Replacement of stabilizer directional gyroscope 1А-Sb.02 with hardware using platformless inertial navigation system technology.
Existing stabilizer directional gyroscope 1А-Sb.02 in ZSU-23-4 is offered to be replaced with platformless inertial navigation system, built with the use of high accuracy accelerometers and fiber optic gyroscopes with a closed loop. In order to improve characteristics in the item it is carried out interconnecting with odometer and satellite navigation GPS/GLONAS signals receiver.
During the update P-123M standard radio station is replaced with modern digital ones (type of radio stations used is determined by the Customer).

During the update of GM-575 track vehicle the following is carried out:
- works for improving driving performance and controllability;
- update of autonomous power supply system;
- installment of protection system from high accuracy weapon guided by laser system.

Driving performance and controllability are improved by means of:
- traction engine with a power not less than 280 h.p.;
- BCN fuel pump in fuel system and AK-150SV compressor with pneumatic equipment set in air starting system;
- hydro mechanical transmission with hydraulic boosters for gas friction and brakes, with dry type disk brakes, with remote control and lever parking brake.

The update of autonomous power supply system is carried out for the purpose of replacement of power system aggregates, taken out of production and decrease of fuel consumption for the need of energy supply (current consumption comprises about 90 l/h, and the achievable one is 12-14 l/h).

The protection from high accuracy weapons is achieved by means of on-board protection screens, and also specialized system covering protection screens from weapons guided by laser. The protection system includes laser and smoke grenades launcher detection system. 

Also during the update of track vehicle the on-board information and control system and air conditioning system are mounted in it.
During the update the observation devices of commander and driver are mounted.
the commander device TKN-N is performed on the base of low-level high-sensitvity television camera and 3rd generation IIT. The device has VIDEO-IN/VIDEO-OUT function. 

Main technical characteristics:






Magnification at day mode


Magnification at night mode

Angle field of view by day

11 deg.

5 deg.

Angle field of view by night

10 deg.


200 mm

Range of target passive detection by night (2,3х2,3m)

Up to 1000 m

Eyepiece diopter adjustment range

+/- 3 diopters

Operating temperatures range

-40 -  +50 deg.


TAIRA – day-night television goggles provide observation in twilight and at night.
For operation in complete darkness goggles have integrated IR-illuminator of 940 nm.
For defogging of eyepieces goggles have two air exhauster fans.

Main technical characteristics:







Angular field of view

13 deg.42min х 18 deg.12 min (24deg.)


0,4 kg.

Power supply (3 – 36V)

on-board network, external source

Detection range on the terrain (depending on illumination, transparency of the atmosphere of 0.005 lk)

Up to 100 m


Comparison characteristics:



Before update

After update


Detection range of air target of tactical fighter type by radar, km


 Minimum 20


Detection range of air targets (fighter-type) by optic electronic system:

     by day, km

     by night, km



5 – 20

3 – 15


Maximum target autotracking range, km

Minimum 10

Minimum 12


Minimum target tracking height, m




Target processing time, sec




Air target engagement probability




Maximum velocity at road, km/h




Maximum velocity at ground, km/h




Type of navigation system

Tank navigation hardware

Platformless inertial navigation system


Probability of external target designation in the automatic mode




Variant 2. Update up to ZSU-23-4M4 

Basic update:
replacement of traction engine;
replacement of power supply system;
installment of hydrostatic rotation mechanism;
installment of compressor into pneumatic supply system;
installment of hydraulic boosters in control drives;
signature decrease in optic and thermal ranges;
radar update;
installment of digital computing system;
installment of air conditioner;
installment of telecode communication.

Additional update elements:
replacement of gas turbine engine of power supply system drive with diesel engine;
installment of self-protection system and laser warning system;
installment of driver’s television system;
replacement of driver’s seat;
installment of air conditioner at driver’s place;
replacement of night vision devices of commander and driver with passive ones.

Comparison characteristics:


ZSU-23-4 (V, V1, М)


ZSU integration into unified military information air defense structure






Air target detection range in unified air defense system, km



Target processing time by radar, s

18 (speeded round search)

<6 (ВЦУ от ВКП)

Computing system operational time, s



Target tracking minimum height by radio link, m



Tracking and firing possibility of maneuvering target



Errors in total guidance angles output of machine gun, m:


root mean square









Probability of air target engagement (while guiding by radar)



Expected rate of target destruction by one ZSU gun tube set (4500 shoots per gun tube)



Expenditure of rounds per one destructed target (statistic data on the results of live firing), pcs.



Required number of firing operations for destruction of one target at 300 rounds expenditure per firing operation



Engagement zone:

cannon armament:

in range, m

in elevation, m

missile armament:

in range, m

in elevation, m



up to 2500

up to 1500






up to 2500

up to 1500


up to 5000

up to 3500

Timely hardware operability control



Possibility of crew training in difficult jamming conditions without using aircrafts



Air conditioning system




Chassis comparison characteristics:


Before modernization

After modernization


Engine with power of 260 h.p.


Engine with power of 280 h.p. with DC generator of 65 kW power

Fuel system

Pneumatic pressure tank is used for fuel priming

Electric fuel priming pump is used for fuel priming

Starting preheater

Mounted on the item

         Included in group SPTA

Air starting system

Air starting cylinder filling is at filling station

Air starting cylinder filling is at vehicle; pneumatic electric valve is used for launching

Transfer gearbox of pump-compressor aggregate drive

Not provided


Steering mechanism and stopping brake mechanism

1. Two stage, planetary steering mechanism with locking frictions

2. Band brake

1. Hydrostatic transmission

2. Dry disk brakes

Steering and brake control drives

Control levers, rods, valves

T-bar, remote control wires, lever parking brake. Do not require adjustment while in operation

Hydraulic boost system of main friction and brakes launch

Not provided

Hydraulic boost system of main friction and brakes launch is mounted, with system doubling while traction engine is off

Power supply system

1. gas turbine engine DG4M1




2. DC generator with transverter

1. 4-cylinder, 4-stroke, liquid-cooled diesel with turbo-supercharging 47 kW

2. AC generator with rectifying devices

Air conditioning system

Not provided


Driver’s seat

Seat was mounted on the vehicle’s bottom

Mount of hammock driver’s seat

Signature reduction elements

Not provided

On-board screens are mounted, exhaust orientation of traction engine is changed


Not provided



Variant 3. Update

The offered update project is performed on technically operable items 2A6 and includes equipping with passive optic electronic stations, which provide:
around-the-clock air and ground (overwater) target detection in the automated mode;
passive automatic target tracking by angle coordinates (azimuth, elevation) and range;
calculation and output of  full elevation values into 2E2 powered drive for guidance of AZP-23 to the future target.
Optic electronic stations provide 2A6 crew with the possibility to conduct combat operations in the passive mode up until and including fire opening, increasing by that the vitality at the battle field.  

Comparison characteristics:


2А6 item

Before modernization

After modernization

Passive automatic target tracking by angle coordinates and range



Target detection range (9x11 m), m

12 000

>12 000

Target automatic tracking range (9x11 m), m

10 000

12 000

Line-of-sight firing range at air targets, flying up to 1500 m height with up to 450 m/s speed, m


200... 2500

Firing range at ground targets, m